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International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS

Home >> Publications >> Immunodeficiency at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

Publication

Author(s):

eDEA and ART Cohort Collaborations, Avila D, Althoff KN, Mugglin C, Wools-Kaloustian K, Koller M, Dabis F, Nash D, Gsponer T, Sungkanuparph S, McGowan C, May M, Cooper D, Chimbetete C, Wolff M, Collier A, McManus H, Davies MA, Costagliola D, Crabtree-Ramirez B, Chaiwarith R, Cescon A, Cornell M, Diero L, Phanuphak P, Sawadogo A, Ehmer J, Eholie SP, Li PC, Fox MP, Gandhi NR, González E, Lee CK, Hoffmann CJ, Kambugu A, Keiser O, Ditangco R, Prozesky H, Lampe F, Kumarasamy N, Kitahata M, Lugina E, Lyamuya R, Vonthanak S, Fink V, d'Arminio Monforte A, Luz PM, Chen YM, Minga A, Casabona J, Mwango A, Choi JY, Newell ML, Bukusi EA, Ngonyani K, Merati TP, Otieno J, Bosco MB, Phiri S, Ng OT, Anastos K, Rockstroh J, Santos I, Oka S, Somi G, Stephan C, Teira R, Wabwire D, Wandeler G, Boulle A, Reiss P, Wood R, Chi BH, Williams C, Sterne JA, Egger M.

Pub Title:

Immunodeficiency at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

Pub Date:

Jan 1 2014

Journal:

Title: 
JAIDS- Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Link: 
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2014&issue=01010&article=00020&type=abstract

PubMed: 24419071

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the CD4 cell count at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in low-income (LIC), lower middle-income (LMIC), upper middle-income (UMIC), and high-income (HIC) countries.

METHODS:

Patients aged 16 years or older starting cART in a clinic participating in a multicohort collaboration spanning 6 continents (International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS and ART Cohort Collaboration) were eligible. Multilevel linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender, and calendar year; missing CD4 counts were imputed.

RESULTS:

In total, 379,865 patients from 9 LIC, 4 LMIC, 4 UMIC, and 6 HIC were included. In LIC, the median CD4 cell count at cART initiation increased by 83% from 80 to 145 cells/μL between 2002 and 2009. Corresponding increases in LMIC, UMIC, and HIC were from 87 to 155 cells/μL (76% increase), 88 to 135 cells/μL (53%), and 209 to 274 cells/μL (31%). In 2009, compared with LIC, median counts were 13 cells/μL [95% confidence interval (CI): -56 to +30] lower in LMIC, 22 cells/μL (-62 to +18) lower in UMIC, and 112 cells/μL (+75 to +149) higher in HIC. They were 23 cells/μL (95% CI: +18 to +28 cells/μL) higher in women than men. Median counts were 88 cells/μL (95% CI: +35 to +141 cells/μL) higher in countries with an estimated national cART coverage >80%, compared with countries with <40% coverage.

CONCLUSIONS:

Median CD4 cell counts at the start of cART increased 2000-2009 but remained below 200 cells/μL in LIC and MIC and below 300 cells/μL in HIC. Earlier start of cART will require substantial efforts and resources globally.

Comment in

 

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Citation:

IeDEA and ART Cohort Collaborations, Avila D, Althoff KN, Mugglin C, Wools-Kaloustian K, Koller M, Dabis F, Nash D, Gsponer T, Sungkanuparph S, McGowan C, May M, Cooper D, Chimbetete C, Wolff M, Collier A, McManus H, Davies MA, Costagliola D, Crabtree-Ramirez B, Chaiwarith R, Cescon A, Cornell M, Diero L, Phanuphak P, Sawadogo A, Ehmer J, Eholie SP, Li PC, Fox MP, Gandhi NR, González E, Lee CK, Hoffmann CJ, Kambugu A, Keiser O, Ditangco R, Prozesky H, Lampe F, Kumarasamy N, Kitahata M, Lugina E, Lyamuya R, Vonthanak S, Fink V, d'Arminio Monforte A, Luz PM, Chen YM, Minga A, Casabona J, Mwango A, Choi JY, Newell ML, Bukusi EA, Ngonyani K, Merati TP, Otieno J, Bosco MB, Phiri S, Ng OT, Anastos K, Rockstroh J, Santos I, Oka S, Somi G, Stephan C, Teira R, Wabwire D, Wandeler G, Boulle A, Reiss P, Wood R, Chi BH, Williams C, Sterne JA, Egger M. Immunodeficiency at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Jan 1;65(1):e8-16. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182a39979. PubMed PMID: 24419071; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3894575.