Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-infected patients in South Africa: Multicohort study in the antiretroviral therapy era.
Dec 1 2014
The incidence of Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is high in South Africa but the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well defined. We examined incidence and survival of KS in HIV-infected patients enrolled in South African ART programs. We analyzed data of three ART programs: Khayelitsha township and Tygerberg Hospital programs in Cape Town and Themba Lethu program in Johannesburg. We included patients aged >16 years. ART was defined as a regimen of at least three drugs. We estimated incidence rates of KS for patients on ART and not on ART. We calculated Cox models adjusted for age, sex and time-updated CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA. A total of 18,254 patients (median age 34.5 years, 64% female, median CD4 cell count at enrolment 105 cells/μL) were included. During 37,488 person-years follow-up 162 patients developed KS. The incidence was 1,682/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1,406-2,011) among patients not receiving ART and 138/100,000 person-years (95% CI 102-187) among patients on ART. The adjusted hazard ratio comparing time on ART with time not on ART was 0.19 (95% CI 0.13-0.28). Low CD4 cell counts (time-updated) and male sex were also associated with KS. Estimated survival of KS patients at one year was 72.2% (95% CI 64.9-80.2) and higher in men than in women. The incidence of KS is substantially lower on ART than not on ART. Timely initiation of ART is essential to prevent KS and KS-associated morbidity and mortality in South Africa and other regions in Africa with a high burden of HIV.
© 2014 UICC.