Outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children after anti-retroviral therapy in Malaysia.
Feb 28 2015
AIMS: To describe outcome and examine factors associated with mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in Malaysia after anti-retroviral therapy (ART).
METHODS: Retrospective and prospective data collected through March 2009 from children in four different states in Malaysia enrolled in TREAT Asia's Pediatric HIV Observational Database were analysed.
RESULTS: Of 347 children in the cohort, only 278 (80.1%) were commenced on ART. The median CD4 count and median age at baseline prior to ART was 272 cells/μL and 4.2 years (interquartile range (IQR): 1.4, 7.4 years), respectively. The median duration of follow-up was 3.7 years (IQR: 1.8, 6.0) with 32 deaths giving a crude mortality rate of 2.86 per 100 child-years. The mortality rate highest in the first 6 months of ART was 10.62 per 100 child-years and declined to 1.83 per 100 child-years thereafter. On univariate analyses, only baseline median CD4 percentage, weight for age z score, height for age z score and anaemia were significantly associated with mortality. Upon including all four of these predictors into a single multivariate model, only weight for age z score remained statistically significantly predictive of mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Children commenced on ART had high mortality in the first 6 months especially in those with low CD4 percentage, wasting and anaemia. Poor nutritional status is an important independent predictor of mortality in this study. Besides initiating ART therapy, nutritional support and intervention must receive the utmost attention.
© 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).