Risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma among HIV-positive individuals in a case control study in Cameroon.
Apr 30 2014
BACKGROUND: Individuals co-infected with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are at greatly increased risk of developing Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The objective of the current analysis is to identify risk cofactors for KS among HIV-positive individuals.
METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of KS in Cameroon on 161 HIV-positive and 14 HIV-negative cases and 680 HIV-positive and 322 HIV-negative controls. Participants answered a physician-administered questionnaire and provided blood and saliva specimens. Antibodies against KSHV lytic, K8.1, and latent, ORF73, antigens were measured by ELISA to determine KSHV serostatus. Conditional logistic regression was performed to determine multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk factors associated with KS among HIV-positive cases and controls.
RESULTS: Overall, 98% (158) of HIV-positive cases, 100% (14) of HIV-negative cases, 81% (550) of HIV-positive controls, and 80% (257) of HIV-negative controls were KSHV seropositive. Risk factors for KS among HIV-positive individuals included KSHV seropositivity (OR=9.6; 95% CI 2.9, 31.5), non-use of a mosquito bed net (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2, 2.9), minority ethnicity (OR=3.1; 95% CI 1.1, 9.3), treatment from a traditional healer (OR=2.3; 95% CI 1.5, 3.7), history of transfusion (OR=2.4; 95% CI 1.5, 3.9), and family history of cancer (OR=1.9; 95% CI 1.1, 3.1).
CONCLUSION: KSHV seroprevalence of ≥80% indicates a high prevalence in the general population in Cameroon. Among HIV-positive individuals, the strong association of KS with non-use of mosquito nets and treatment from traditional healers are compelling findings, consistent with recently reported data from East Africa.
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