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Home >> Publications >> Tracing of patients lost to follow-up and HIV transmission: Mathematical modelling study based on two large ART programmes in Malawi.

Publication

Author(s):

Estill J, Tweya H, Egger M, Wandeler G, Feldacker C, Johnson LF, Blaser N, Vizcaya LS, Phiri S, Keiser O.

Pub Title:

Tracing of patients lost to follow-up and HIV transmission: Mathematical modelling study based on two large ART programmes in Malawi.

Pub Date:

Apr 15 2014

Pub Region(s):

Southern Africa

Journal:

Title: 
JAIDS- Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Link: 
http://journals.lww.com/jaids/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=9000&issue=00000&article=97998&type=abstract

PubMed: 24326599
Pub PDF:

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Treatment as prevention depends on retaining HIV-infected patients in care. We investigated the effect on HIV transmission of bringing patients lost to follow up (LTFU) back into care.

DESIGN: Mathematical model.

METHODS: Stochastic mathematical model of cohorts of 1000 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), based on data from two clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. We calculated cohort viral load (CVL; sum of individual mean viral loads each year) and used a mathematical relationship between viral load and transmission probability to estimate the number of new HIV infections. We simulated four scenarios: 'no LTFU' (all patients stay in care); 'no tracing' (patients LTFU are not traced); 'immediate tracing' (after missed clinic appointment); and, 'delayed tracing' (after six months).

RESULTS: About 440 of 1000 patients were LTFU over five years. CVL (million copies/ml per 1000 patients) were 3.7 (95% prediction interval [PrI] 2.9-4.9) for no LTFU, 8.6 (95% PrI 7.3-10.0) for no tracing, 7.7 (95% PrI 6.2-9.1) for immediate, and 8.0 (95% PrI 6.7-9.5) for delayed tracing. Comparing no LTFU with no tracing the number of new infections increased from 33 (95% PrI 29-38) to 54 (95% PrI 47-60) per 1000 patients. Immediate tracing prevented 3.6 (95% PrI -3.3-12.8) and delayed tracing 2.5 (95% PrI -5.8-11.1) new infections per 1000. Immediate tracing was more efficient than delayed tracing: 116 and to 142 tracing efforts, respectively, were needed to prevent one new infection.

CONCLUSION: Tracing of patients LTFU enhances the preventive effect of ART, but the number of transmissions prevented is small.

 

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Citation:

Estill J, Tweya H, Egger M, Wandeler G, Feldacker C, Johnson LF, Blaser N, Vizcaya LS, Phiri S, Keiser O. Tracing of patients lost to follow-up and HIV transmission: Mathematical modelling study based on two large ART programmes in Malawi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Dec 8. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24326599.