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International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS

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INTRODUCTION: Targeted spontaneous reporting (TSR) is a pharmacovigilance method that can enhance reporting of adverse drug reactions related to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Minimal data exist on the needs or capacity of facilities to conduct TSR.

OBJECTIVES: Using data from the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, the present study had two objectives: (1) to develop...

Setting: World Health Organization advocates for integration of HIV-tuberculosis (TB) services and recommends intensive case finding (ICF), isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), and infection control (“Three I’s”) for TB prevention and control among persons living with HIV.

Objective: To assess the implementation of the “Three I’s” of TB-control at HIV treatment sites in lower income countries.

Design...

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence regarding the optimal timing of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children. We conducted a causal modeling analysis in children ages 1-5 years from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS West/Southern-Africa collaboration to determine growth and mortality differences related to different CD4-based treatment initiation criteria, age groups, and...

BACKGROUND:
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We assessed isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) completion and predictors among HIV-infected children and adults in two HIV clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Between 1 September 2012 and 15 June 2013, 546 children (1-15 years) and 1532 adults (>15 years) were initiated on IPT; 86.6% (408/470...

We determined the associations of HIV infection/CD4 count with markers of hepatocellular damage [elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] and liver synthetic function (decreased albumin) in HIV-infected (HIV(+)) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and uninfected (HIV(-))...

BACKGROUND: We longitudinally assessed predictors of insulin resistance (IR) change among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected (ART-...

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To examine the prevalence of reported shingles in the last 6 months and its association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and severity of HIV disease in Rwandan women with HIV.

SETTINGS: This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment (RWISA), an observational...

To evaluate the effectiveness of decentralizing ambulatory reproductive and intrapartum services to increase rates of antenatal care (ANC) utilization and skilled attendance at birth (SAB) in Rwanda. A prospective cohort study was implemented with one control and two intervention sites: decentralized...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Viral load and CD4% are often not available in resource-limited settings for monitoring children's responses to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to construct normative curves for weight gain at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months following initiation of ART in children, and to assess the association between poor weight gain and subsequent responses to ART.

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Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The CD4 cell count or percent (CD4%) at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is an important prognostic factor in children starting therapy and an important indicator of program performance. We describe trends and determinants of CD4 measures at cART initiation in children from low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

METHODS:...

Abstract
It is not well understood how infection with HIV and prior experience of sexual violence affects sexual behavior in African women. We describe factors influencing current sexual practices of Rwandan women living with or without HIV/AIDS. By design, 75 % of participants were HIV positive and ~50 % reported having experienced genocidal rape. Univariate and multivariate logistic...

Abstract
SETTING:
Drug resistance threatens tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons.

OBJECTIVE: To describe practices in the prevention and management of drug-resistant TB under antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in lower-income countries.

DESIGN: We used online questionnaires...

Abstract
This study examines care seeking behaviors, clinical outcomes, and satisfaction with care of HIV-positive adults in Lubumbashi, DRC, one year after a disruption in care due to decreased global fund appropriations. We describe outcomes before and after the disruption. We compared characteristics of those who completed the survey and those who did not using the Wald F test. Most...

BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy symptoms (PNS) are commonly manifested in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, although data are limited...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Individuals co-infected with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are at greatly increased risk of developing Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The objective of the current analysis is to identify risk cofactors for KS among HIV-positive individuals.

METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of KS in Cameroon on 161...

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the CD4...

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The purpose of these analyses was to determine the associations of HIV infection and related immune dysfunction with a glucose homeostasis in the population of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women. We hypothesise that insulin resistance and its consequences in the developing countries may be further elevated with HIV infection itself regardless...

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
In resource-constrained settings, tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and cause of death in HIV-infected persons. TB may be present at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but it is often under-diagnosed. We describe approaches to TB diagnosis and screening of TB in ART programs in low- and middle-income countries.
METHODS AND FINDINGS:...

Contraception can reduce the dual burden of high fertility and high HIV prevalence in sub-Sahara Africa, but significant barriers remain regarding access and use. We describe factors associated with nonuse of contraception and with use of specific contraceptive methods in HIV positive and HIV negative...

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