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Abstract
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for a growing burden of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy interact with NCD risk factors in complex ways, and research into this "web of causation" has so far been largely based on data from high-income countries. However, improving the...

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Estimates of CD4 response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) obtained by averaging data from patients in care, overestimate population CD4 response and treatment program effectiveness because they do not consider data from patients who are deceased or not in care. We use mathematical methods to assess and adjust for this bias based on patient characteristics.

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Abstract
BACKGROUND:
There is conflicting evidence on the immunologic benefit of treating helminth co-infections ("deworming") in HIV-infected individuals. Several studies have documented reduced viral load and increased CD4 count in antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve individuals after deworming. However, there are a lack of data on the effect of deworming therapy on CD4 count recovery among...

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).

METHODS: HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East...

Most studies that follow subjects over time are challenged by having some subjects who dropout. Double sampling is a design that selects and devotes resources to intensively pursue and find a subset of these dropouts, then uses data obtained from these to adjust naïve estimates, which are potentially biased by the dropout. Existing methods to estimate survival from double sampling assume a random sample. In...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Increased eligibility guidelines of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to greater routine viral load monitoring. However, in resource-constrained settings, the additional resources required by greater routine viral load monitoring may impair ability to comply with expanded eligibility guidelines for ART.

OBJECTIVE: We use a published...

OBJECTIVE: To describe the CD4 cell count at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in low-income (LIC), lower middle-income (LMIC), upper middle-income (UMIC), and high-income (HIC) countries.

METHODS: Patients aged 16 years or older starting cART in a clinic participating in a multicohort collaboration spanning 6 continents (International...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
In sub-Saharan Africa, a large proportion of HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are lost to follow-up, some of whom are dead. The objective of this study was to validate methods used to correct mortality estimates for loss-to-follow-up using a cohort with complete death ascertainment.

METHODS: Routinely collected data from...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:

There is a paucity of data on malaria among hospitalized children in malaria endemic areas. We determined the prevalence, presentation and treatment outcomes of malaria and anemia among children in two hospitals in Rakai, Uganda.
METHODS:
Children under five years hospitalized in Kalisizo hospital or Bikira health center in Rakai district...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Computer simulation models can project long-term patient outcomes and inform health policy. We internally validated and then calibrated a model of HIV disease in children before initiation of antiretroviral therapy to provide a framework against which to compare the impact of pediatric HIV treatment strategies.

METHODS:...

OBJECTIVES: In resource-constrained settings, tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and cause of death in HIV-infected persons. TB may be present at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but it is often under-diagnosed. We describe approaches to TB diagnosis and screening of TB in ART programs in low- and middle-income countries.
METHODS AND FINDINGS:

We...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) cause suboptimal clinical outcomes. Data on TIs during social disruption are limited.
METHODS: We determined effects of unplanned TIs after the 2007-2008 Kenyan postelection violence on virological failure, comparing viral load (VL) outcomes in HIV-infected adults with and without conflict-induced TI....

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Delays and failures in initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among treatment eligible patients may compromise the effectiveness of HIV care in Africa. An accurate understanding, however, of the pace and completeness of ART initiation and mortality during the waiting period is obscured by frequent losses to follow-up.

METHODS...

Abstract

Thirty-four million people worldwide were living with the HIV by the end of 2010. Despite significant advances in antiretroviral therapy, drug resistance remains a major deterrent to successful, enduring treatment. Unplanned interruptions in antiretroviral therapy have negative effects on HIV treatment outcomes, including increased morbidity and mortality...

Abstract

BACKGROUND: We investigated 18-month incidence and determinants of death and loss to follow-up of children after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a multiregional collaboration in lower-income countries.

METHODS: HIV-infected children (positive polymerase chain reaction <18 months or positive serology ≥18 months) from...

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This cohort study utilized data from a large HIV treatment program in western Kenya to describe the impact of active tuberculosis (TB) on clinical outcomes among African patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

DESIGN: We included all patients initiating ART between March 2004 and November 2007....

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes in low-resource settings.

METHODS: A standardized survey was completed by International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS paediatric cohort sites in the regions of Asia-Pacific (AP), Central Africa (CA), East Africa (EA), Southern Africa (SA) and...

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this analysis was to identify points of disruption within the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) continuum from combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) initiation until delivery.

METHODS: To address this objective, the electronic medical records of all antiretroviral...

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To provide estimates of mortality among HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy.

METHODS: We report on the death rates from 122 925 adult HIV-infected patients aged 15 years or older from East, Southern and West Africa, Asia Pacific and Latin America. We use two methods to adjust for biases in mortality...

PMID: 21593078 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
PMCID: PMC3465765 [Available on 2013/10/1]

 

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the recent availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings and the significant burden exacted by Kaposi's sarcoma in these areas, we reviewed data regarding the impact of ART on Kaposi's sarcoma incidence. We summarized the sizeable literature in resource-rich settings as well as emerging...

Abstract

Although clinic-based cohorts are most representative of the "real world," they are susceptible to loss to follow-up. Strategies for managing the impact of loss to follow-up are therefore needed to maximize the value of studies conducted in these cohorts. The authors evaluated adult patients starting antiretroviral therapy at an HIV/AIDS clinic in Uganda...

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Up to 20% of people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa die during the first year of treatment. Understanding the clinical conditions associated with mortality could potentially lead to effective interventions to prevent these deaths.

METHODS: We examined data from participants...

Abstract

BACKGROUND: East Africa has experienced a rapid expansion in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected patients. Regionally representative socio-demographic, laboratory and clinical characteristics of patients accessing ART over time and across sites have not been well described.

METHODS: We conducted...

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Current estimates of retention among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa consider patients who are lost to follow-up (LTF) as well as those who die shortly after their last clinic visit to be no longer in care and to represent limitations in access to care. Yet many lost patients may have "...

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