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International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS

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BACKGROUND:

In resource-limited settings, clinical parameters, including...

Cohort studies and clinical trials may involve multiple events. When occurrence of one of these events prevents the observance of another, the situation is called "competing risks". A useful measure in such studies is the cumulative incidence of an event, which is useful in evaluating interventions or...

BACKGROUND: The International Maternal, Pediatric, and Adolescent Clinical Trials P1060 trial demonstrated superior outcomes for HIV-...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Academic Model Providing Access To Healthcare (AMPATH) program provides comprehensive HIV care and treatment services. Approximately, 30% of patients have become lost to follow-up (LTFU). We sought to actively trace and identify outcomes for a sample of these patients.

METHODS: LTFU was defined as missing a scheduled visit by ≥3 months. A...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Many prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs currently prioritize antiretroviral therapy (ART) for women with advanced HIV. Point-of-care (POC) CD4 assays may expedite the selection of three-drug ART instead of zidovudine, but are costlier than traditional laboratory assays.

METHODS: We used validated models of HIV...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Even among HIV-infected patients who fully suppress plasma HIV RNA replication on antiretroviral therapy, genetic (e.g. CCL3L1 copy number), viral (e.g. tropism) and environmental (e.g. chronic exposure to microbial antigens) factors influence CD4 recovery. These factors differ markedly around the world and therefore the expected CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a rare manifestation of infection caused by Bartonella species, which leads to vasoproliferative lesions of skin and other organs. Bacillary angiomatosis affects individuals with advanced HIV disease or other immunocompromised individuals. In sub-Saharan Africa, despite the high prevalence of HIV infection and documentation of the causative...

Fueled by HIV, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the world. Despite this, KS diagnosis in the region is based mostly on clinical grounds. Where biopsy is available, it has traditionally been excisional and performed by surgeons, resulting in multiple appointments, follow-...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Viral load and CD4% are often not available in resource-limited settings for monitoring children's responses to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to construct normative curves for weight gain at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months following initiation of ART in children, and to assess the association between poor weight gain and subsequent responses to ART.

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Abstract
BACKGROUND:
There is limited research characterizing the HIV care continuum with population-based data in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to: 1) describe engagement in care among all known HIV-positive adults in one sub-county of western Kenya; and 2) determine the time to and predictors of linkage and engagement among adults newly diagnosed via home-based...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The CD4 cell count or percent (CD4%) at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is an important prognostic factor in children starting therapy and an important indicator of program performance. We describe trends and determinants of CD4 measures at cART initiation in children from low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

METHODS:...

Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies...

Abstract
SETTING:
Drug resistance threatens tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons.

OBJECTIVE: To describe practices in the prevention and management of drug-resistant TB under antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in lower-income countries.

DESIGN: We used online questionnaires...

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Routine monitoring of plasma HIV RNA among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unavailable in many resource-limited settings. Alternative monitoring approaches correlate poorly with virologic failure and can substantially delay switch to second-line therapy. We evaluated the impact of delayed switch on mortality among patients with virologic failure...

Abstract
Interactions between patients and service providers frequently influence uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa, but this process has not been examined in depth. This study explores how patient-provider relations influence PMTCT service use in four government facilities in Kisesa, Tanzania. Qualitative data were collected in...

Abstract
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for a growing burden of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy interact with NCD risk factors in complex ways, and research into this "web of causation" has so far been largely based on data from high-income countries. However, improving the...

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