International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS

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Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes among HIV/TB Co-Infected Children in the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Network

INTRODUCTION: Management of tuberculosis (TB) is challenging in HIV/TB co-infected children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends nucleic acid amplification tests for TB diagnosis, a four-drug regimen including ethambutol during intensive phase of treatment (IP), and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within eight weeks of TB diagnosis. We investigated TB treatment outcomes by diagnostic modality, IP regimen, and ART status.

Has the phasing out of stavudine in accordance with changes in WHO guidelines led to a decrease in single-drug substitutions in first-line antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa?

OBJECTIVE:We assessed the relationship between phasing out stavudine in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in accordance with WHO 2010 policy and single-drug substitutions (SDS) (substituting the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in first-line ART) in sub-Saharan Africa.

Growth and Mortality Outcomes for Different Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Criteria in Children Ages 1-5 Years: A Causal Modeling Analysis.

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence regarding the optimal timing of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children. We conducted a causal modeling analysis in children ages 1-5 years from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS West/Southern-Africa collaboration to determine growth and mortality differences related to different CD4-based treatment initiation criteria, age groups, and regions.

Risk Charts to Guide Targeted HIV-1 Viral Load Monitoring of ART: Development and Validation in Patients From Resource-Limited Settings

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) testing is recommended to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) but not available in many resource-limited settings. We developed and validated CD4-based risk charts to guide targeted VL testing.

HIV and human herpesvirus 8 co-infection across the globe: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

HIV-infection is an important risk factor for developing Kaposi sarcoma (KS), but it is unclear whether HIV-positive persons are also at increased risk of co-infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the infectious cause of KS. We systematically searched literature up to December 2012 and included studies reporting HHV-8 seroprevalence for HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons.

Optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in HIV-positive children and adolescents: a multiregional analysis from Southern Africa, West Africa and Europe.

BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge about the optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in older children and adolescents.
METHODS: A total of 20 576 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve patients, aged 1-16 years at enrolment, from 19 cohorts in Europe, Southern Africa and West Africa, were included. We compared mortality and growth outcomes for different ART initiation criteria, aligned with previous and recent World Health Organization criteria, for 5 years of follow-up, adjusting for all measured baseline and time-dependent confounders using the g-formula.

Targeted Spontaneous Reporting: Assessing Opportunities to Conduct Routine Pharmacovigilance for Antiretroviral Treatment on an International Scale

INTRODUCTION: Targeted spontaneous reporting (TSR) is a pharmacovigilance method that can enhance reporting of adverse drug reactions related to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Minimal data exist on the needs or capacity of facilities to conduct TSR.

Implementation of Tuberculosis Intensive Case Finding, Isoniazid Preventive Therapy, and Infection Control ("Three I's") and HIV-Tuberculosis Service Integration in Lower Income Countries

Setting: World Health Organization advocates for integration of HIV-tuberculosis (TB) services and recommends intensive case finding (ICF), isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), and infection control (“Three I’s”) for TB prevention and control among persons living with HIV.

Objective: To assess the implementation of the “Three I’s” of TB-control at HIV treatment sites in lower income countries.