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Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) prevents opportunistic infections in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children, but estimates of the effectiveness in preventing malaria vary. We reviewed studies that examined the effect of CPT on incidence of malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa.

METHODS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE for randomised...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa...

PMID: 25196841 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Abstract
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for a growing burden of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy interact with NCD risk factors in complex ways, and research into this "web of causation" has so far been largely based on data from high-income countries. However, improving the...

Abstract
Background. Population models of tuberculosis transmission have not accounted for social contact structure and the role of the environment in which tuberculosis is transmitted.Methods. We utilized extensions to the Wells-Riley model of tuberculosis transmission, using exhaled carbon dioxide as a tracer gas, to describe transmission patterns in an endemic community. Drawing upon...

BACKGROUND: Initiation criteria and pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens have changed over the past few years in South Africa. We reported worse early virological outcomes associated with the use abacavir (ABC)-based regimens at one large site: here we expand this analysis to multiple sites in the IeDEA-Southern Africa collaboration.

METHODS: Data for...

BACKGROUND: Prognostic models for children starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa are lacking. We developed models to estimate the probability of death during the first year receiving ART in Southern Africa.

METHODS: We analyzed data from children ≤10 years old who started ART in Malawi, South Africa, Zambia or Zimbabwe from 2004-2010. Children lost to...

Abstract
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES:
Little is known about outcomes after transfer out (TFO) and loss to follow-up (LTF) and how differential outcomes might bias mortality estimates, as analyses generally censor or exclude TFOs/LTF. Using data linked to the National Population Register (NPR), we explored mortality among patients TFO and LTF compared with patients retained and investigated...

PMID: 24866364
    [PubMed - in process]
PMCID: PMC4035263

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Despite an improvement in the overall TB cure rate from 40-74% between 1995 and 2011, TB incidence in South Africa continues to increase. The epidemic is notably disquieting in schools because the vulnerable population is compelled to be present. Older learners (age 15-19) are at particular risk given a smear-positive rate of 427 per 100,000 per year and the significant...

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
HIV 'treatment as prevention' (TasP) describes early treatment of HIV-infected patients intended to reduce viral load and transmission. Crucial assumptions for estimating TasP's effectiveness are the underlying estimates of transmission risk. We aimed to determine transmission risk during primary infection, and describe the relation of HIV transmission risk to viral load...

OBJECTIVES: Treatment as prevention depends on retaining HIV-infected patients in care. We investigated the effect on HIV transmission of bringing patients lost to follow up (LTFU) back into care.

DESIGN: Mathematical model.

METHODS: Stochastic mathematical model of cohorts of 1000 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), based...

Abstract
Background. Although tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use has increased as part of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) across sub-Saharan Africa, renal outcomes among patients receiving TDF remain poorly understood. We assessed changes in renal function and mortality in patients starting TDF- or non-TDF-containing ART in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods. We included patients aged ≥16...

OBJECTIVE: To explore the levels and determinants of loss to follow-up (LTF) under universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women ('Option B+') in Malawi.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined retention in care, from the date of ART initiation up to 6 months, for women in the Option B+ program. We analysed nationwide...

BACKGROUND: Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is the underlying infectious cause of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and other proliferative diseases; that is, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. In regions with high HHV-8 seroprevalence in the general population, KS accounts for a major burden of disease. Outside these endemic regions, HHV-8 prevalence is...

Abstract

Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is a common problem in many epidemiological studies. In antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), mortality estimates can be biased if the LTFU mechanism is non-ignorable, that is, mortality differs between lost and retained patients. In this setting, routine procedures for...

OBJECTIVE: To describe the CD4 cell count at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in low-income (LIC), lower middle-income (LMIC), upper middle-income (UMIC), and high-income (HIC) countries.

METHODS: Patients aged 16 years or older starting cART in a clinic participating in a multicohort collaboration spanning 6 continents (International...

BACKGROUND: Since 2005, increasing numbers of children have started antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa and, in recent years, WHO and country treatment guidelines have recommended ART initiation for all infants and very young children, and at higher CD4 thresholds for older children. We examined temporal changes in patient and regimen characteristics at ART start using data...

BACKGROUND: There is debate over using tenofovir or zidovudine alongside lamivudine in second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following stavudine failure. We analyzed outcomes in cohorts from South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe METHODS: Patients aged ≥16 years who switched from a first-line regimen including stavudine to a ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based second-line regimen with...

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in children 2-5 y of age. We conducted a causal modelling analysis using the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaborative dataset to determine the difference in mortality when starting ART in children aged 2-5 y immediately (irrespective of CD4...

Abstract

Introduction: Lesotho was among the first countries to adopt decentralization of care from hospitals to nurse-led health centres (HCs) to scale up the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared outcomes between patients who started ART at HCs and hospitals in two rural catchment areas in Lesotho. Methods: The two catchment areas comprise two...

INTRODUCTION: The temporal relationship between incident tuberculosis (TB) and virological outcomes during antiretroviral therapy (ART) is poorly defined. This was studied in a cohort in Cape Town, South Africa.

METHODS: Data regarding TB diagnoses, ART regimens, and 4-monthly updated viral load (VL) and CD4 count measurements were extracted from a prospectively...

OBJECTIVES: In resource-constrained settings, tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and cause of death in HIV-infected persons. TB may be present at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but it is often under-diagnosed. We describe approaches to TB diagnosis and screening of TB in ART programs in low- and middle-income countries.
METHODS AND FINDINGS:

We...

BACKGROUND: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) comprising three antiretroviral medications from at least two classes of drugs is the current standard treatment for HIV infection in adults and children. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for antiretroviral therapy recommend early treatment regardless of immunologic thresholds or the clinical condition for...

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of different definitions of loss to follow-up (LTFU) on estimates of program outcomes in cohort studies of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We examined the impact of different definitions of LTFU using data from the International Epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS-...

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